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Scale for a Kafka cluster

You can scale a Kafka cluster in two ways, vertical scaling and horizontal scaling.

Vertical scaling

You can vertically scale a cluster by changing resource requirements and limits (CPU and storage). For example, if you need to change the resource class from 1C2G to 2C4G, vertical scaling is what you need.

note

During the vertical scaling process, all pods restart in the order of learner -> follower -> leader and the leader pod may change after the restarting.

Before you start

Check whether the cluster status is Running. Otherwise, the following operations may fail.

kbcli cluster list
>
NAME NAMESPACE CLUSTER-DEFINITION VERSION TERMINATION-POLICY STATUS CREATED-TIME
ivy85 default kafka kafka-3.3.2 Delete Running Jul 19,2023 18:01 UTC+0800

Steps

  1. Change configuration. There are 3 ways to apply vertical scaling.

    Option 1. (Recommended) Use kbcli

    Configure the parameters --components, --memory, and --cpu and run the command.

     kbcli cluster vscale ivy85 --components="broker" --memory="4Gi" --cpu="2" 
    • --components value can be broker or controller.
      • broker: all nodes in the combined mode, or all the broker node in the separated node.
      • controller: all the corresponding nodes in the separated mode.
    • --memory describes the requested and limited size of the component memory.
    • --cpu describes the requested and limited size of the component CPU.

    Option 2. Create an OpsRequest

    Apply an OpsRequest to the specified cluster. Configure the parameters according to your needs.

    kubectl apply -f - <<EOF
    apiVersion: apps.kubeblocks.io/v1alpha1
    kind: OpsRequest
    metadata:
    name: ops-vertical-scaling
    spec:
    clusterRef: ivy85
    type: VerticalScaling
    verticalScaling:
    - componentName: broker
    requests:
    memory: "2Gi"
    cpu: "1000m"
    limits:
    memory: "4Gi"
    cpu: "2000m"
    EOF

    Option 3. Change the YAML file of the cluster

    Change the configuration of spec.componentSpecs.resources in the YAML file. spec.componentSpecs.resources controls the requirement and limit of resources and changing them triggers a vertical scaling.

    Example

    apiVersion: apps.kubeblocks.io/v1alpha1
    kind: Cluster
    metadata:
    name: ivy85
    namespace: default
    spec:
    clusterDefinitionRef: kafka
    clusterVersionRef: kafka-3.3.2
    componentSpecs:
    - name: broker
    componentDefRef: broker
    replicas: 1
    resources: # Change the values of resources.
    requests:
    memory: "2Gi"
    cpu: "1000m"
    limits:
    memory: "4Gi"
    cpu: "2000m"
    volumeClaimTemplates:
    - name: data
    spec:
    accessModes:
    - ReadWriteOnce
    resources:
    requests:
    storage: 1Gi
    terminationPolicy: Halt
  2. Check the cluster status to validate the vertical scaling.

    kbcli cluster list mysql-cluster
    >
    NAME NAMESPACE CLUSTER-DEFINITION VERSION TERMINATION-POLICY STATUS CREATED-TIME
    ivy85 default kafka kafka-3.3.2 Delete VerticalScaling Jan 29,2023 14:29 UTC+0800
    • STATUS=VerticalScaling: it means the vertical scaling is in progress.

    • STATUS=Running: it means the vertical scaling operation has been applied.

    • STATUS=Abnormal: it means the vertical scaling is abnormal. The reason may be that the number of the normal instances is less than that of the total instance or the leader instance is running properly while others are abnormal.

      To solve the problem, you can manually check whether this error is caused by insufficient resources. Then if AutoScaling is supported by the Kubernetes cluster, the system recovers when there are enough resources. Otherwise, you can create enough resources and troubleshoot with kubectl describe command.

      note

      Vertical scaling does not synchronize parameters related to CPU and memory and it is required to manually call the OpsRequest of configuration to change parameters accordingly. Refer to Configuration for instructions.

  3. Check whether the corresponding resources change.

    kbcli cluster describe ivy85

Horizontal scaling

Horizontal scaling changes the amount of pods. For example, you can apply horizontal scaling to scale pods up from three to five. The scaling process includes the backup and restoration of data.

Before you start

  • Check whether the cluster STATUS is Running. Otherwise, the following operations may fail.

  • You are not recommended to perform horizontal scaling on the controller node, including the controller node both in combined mode and separated node.

  • When scaling in horizontally, you must know the topic partition storage. If the topic has only one replication, data loss may caused when you scale in broker.

    kbcli cluster list
    >
    NAME NAMESPACE CLUSTER-DEFINITION VERSION TERMINATION-POLICY STATUS CREATED-TIME
    ivy85 default kafka kafka-3.3.2 Delete Running Jul 19,2023 18:01 UTC+0800

Steps

  1. Change configuration. There are 3 ways to apply horizontal scaling.

    Option 1. (Recommended) Use kbcli

    Configure the parameters --components and --replicas, and run the command.

    kbcli cluster hscale mysql-cluster \
    --components="broker" --replicas=3
    • --components value can be broker or controller.
      • broker: all nodes in the combined mode, or all the broker node in the separated node.
      • controller: all the corresponding nodes in the separated mode.
    • --memory describes the requested and limited size of the component memory.
    • --cpu describes the requested and limited size of the component CPU.

    Option 2. Create an OpsRequest

    Apply an OpsRequest to a specified cluster. Configure the parameters according to your needs.

    kubectl apply -f - <<EOF
    apiVersion: apps.kubeblocks.io/v1alpha1
    kind: OpsRequest
    metadata:
    name: ops-horizontal-scaling
    spec:
    clusterRef: ivy85
    type: HorizontalScaling
    horizontalScaling:
    - componentName: broker
    replicas: 3
    EOF

    Option 3. Change the YAML file of the cluster

    Change the configuration of spec.componentSpecs.replicas in the YAML file. spec.componentSpecs.replicas stands for the pod amount and changing this value triggers a horizontal scaling of a cluster.

    Example

    apiVersion: apps.kubeblocks.io/v1alpha1
    kind: Cluster
    metadata:
    apiVersion: apps.kubeblocks.io/v1alpha1
    kind: Cluster
    metadata:
    name: ivy85
    namespace: default
    spec:
    clusterDefinitionRef: kafka
    clusterVersionRef: kafka-3.3.2
    componentSpecs:
    - name: broker
    componentDefRef: broker
    replicas: 1 # Change the pod amount.
    volumeClaimTemplates:
    - name: data
    spec:
    accessModes:
    - ReadWriteOnce
    resources:
    requests:
    storage: 1Gi
    terminationPolicy: Halt
  2. Validate the horizontal scaling operation.

    Check the cluster STATUS to identify the horizontal scaling status.

    kbcli cluster list ivy85
    • STATUS=HorizontalScaling: it means horizontal scaling is in progress.
    • STATUS=Running: it means horizontal scaling has been applied.
  3. Check whether the corresponding resources change.

    kbcli cluster describe ivy85

Handle the snapshot exception

If STATUS=ConditionsError occurs during the horizontal scaling process, you can find the cause from cluster.status.condition.message for troubleshooting.

In the example below, a snapshot exception occurs.

Status:
conditions:
- lastTransitionTime: "2023-02-08T04:20:26Z"
message: VolumeSnapshot/ivy85-kafka-scaling-dbqgp: Failed to set default snapshot
class with error cannot find default snapshot class
reason: ApplyResourcesFailed
status: "False"
type: ApplyResources

Reason

This exception occurs because the VolumeSnapshotClass is not configured. This exception can be fixed after configuring VolumeSnapshotClass, but the horizontal scaling cannot continue to run. It is because the wrong backup (volumesnapshot is generated by backup) and volumesnapshot generated before still exist. Delete these two wrong resources and then KubeBlocks re-generates new resources.

Steps:

  1. Configure the VolumeSnapshotClass by running the command below.

    kubectl create -f - <<EOF
    apiVersion: snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1
    kind: VolumeSnapshotClass
    metadata:
    name: csi-aws-vsc
    annotations:
    snapshot.storage.kubernetes.io/is-default-class: "true"
    driver: ebs.csi.aws.com
    deletionPolicy: Delete
    EOF
  2. Delete the wrong backup (volumesnapshot is generated by backup) and volumesnapshot resources.

    kubectl delete backup -l app.kubernetes.io/instance=ivy85

    kubectl delete volumesnapshot -l app.kubernetes.io/instance=ivy85

Result

The horizontal scaling continues after backup and volumesnapshot are deleted and the cluster restores to running status.